Alexandria, also known as Al-Iskandariyyah in Arabic, is a major Egyptian city and urban mufaah (governorate). Alexandria was the capital of Egypt from its establishment by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE until its surrender to Arab forces led by Amr ibn al- in 642 CE. It was once one of the greatest cities of the Mediterranean world and a centre of Hellenic scholarship and research.Alexandria, Egypt’s largest city, is also the country’s main seaport and a major industrial hub. The city is located on the Mediterranean Sea at the western end of the Nile River delta, approximately 114 miles (183 kilometres) northwest of Cairo in Lower Egypt. 116-square-mile urban area (300 square km). The population of the city in 2006 was 4,110,015.